An Experimental Study of Bivalve Siphonal Jets in a Turbulent Boundary Layer Crossflow

by Catherine A. O'Riordan, Stanford Univ, Stanford, United States,
Stephen G. Monismith, Stanford Univ, Stanford, United States,
Jeffrey R. Koseff, Stanford Univ, Stanford, United States,

Document Type: Proceeding Paper

Part of: Hydraulic Engineering


We conducted experiments in a laboratory flume to study the interaction of bivalve siphonal jets with the turbulent boundary layer which forms in the benthic region of shallow estuaries. Beds of siphonate bivalves (clams) 1.8 meters long were simulated to study the formation of a phytoplankton-depleted layer (concentration boundary layer) over bivalves. Refiltration of excurrent fluid through incurrent siphons, which represents a decrease in aggregate feeding efficiency, was measured for two test beds with S/d0 = 6 and 16 and siphon pairs oriented perpendicular to the cross flow direction. Results are expressed as a function of the nondimensional distance downstream, x/d0, the velocity ratio, VR = uj/U, and the nondimensional animal spacing, S/d0. We also used laser induced fluorescence to obtain quantitative concentration profiles in order to describe the evolution of the flow and to identify parameters that describe the jet/boundary layer interaction.

Subject Headings: Siphons | Turbulent flow | Boundary layers | Crossflow | Fluid flow | Flow measurement | Streamflow | Fish management

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