Carbon-14: Some Evidence of Migration and Experiments on Immobilisation

by E. B. Anderson, V.G. Khlopin Radium Inst, St. Petersburg, Russia,
N. N. Kalinin, V.G. Khlopin Radium Inst, St. Petersburg, Russia,
Yu. V. Kuznetsov, V.G. Khlopin Radium Inst, St. Petersburg, Russia,
A. A. Rimski-Korsakov, V.G. Khlopin Radium Inst, St. Petersburg, Russia,

Document Type: Proceeding Paper

Part of: High Level Radioactive Waste Management 1993


Carbon-14 that is produced in nuclear reactors by reactions on C, N and O is one of the most biologically dangerous nuclides that are subject to global dispersion (H-3, 85-Kr, 129-I). It is assumed that about 20-30% of C-14 is released at atmosphere from NPPs and 80-70% remains in the fuel and will be released during reprocessing. Atmospheric dispersion of C-14 in the form of carbon dioxide cannot go without consequence for the environment, particularly for the vegetation. This influence of the carbon-14 release from a radio-chemical facility in Russia on the nearby forest is illustrated in the first part of the report by data on C-14 concentration in the barks of trees, analysed year by year and showing yearly variation of C-14 releases. The second part of the report deals with the study of stability of portland-cement compounds and Ca, Ba and Sr carbonates to the leaching processes. Leaching tests were done on specially prepared samples of compounds, containing various (from 30% to 70%) concentrations of Ca, Sr or Ba carbonates, tagged by C-14. Distilled water was used as leaching agent. Leaching was conducted for 46 hours and C-14 concentrations and pH of resulting waters were monitored. Differential leaching rates and leaching coefficients were analysed and general compound behaviour and its dynamics has been observed.

Subject Headings: Leaching | Waste treatment | Waste disposal | Radioactive wastes | Data analysis | Carbonation | Carbon fibers | Russia | Europe

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