Ground Freezing for Construction

by Bernd Braun, (M.ASCE), Special Projects & Operations Mgr.; Deilmann- Haniel GmbH Postfach 130220, Haustenbecke, 4600 Dortmund 13, West Germany,
William R. Nash, (M.ASCE), Chf. Mining Engr.; Frontier-Kemper Constructors, Inc., P. O. Box 6548, Evansville, Ind. 47712,

Serial Information: Civil Engineering—ASCE, 1985, Vol. 55, Issue 1, Pg. 54-56

Document Type: Feature article


For almost a century, freezing has been used successfully as an art to stabilize ground and control groundwater. First employed by the mining industry in Europe, it has since been widely adopted throughout the world to stabilize all types of excavations including shafts up to 915 m (3,000 ft.) in depth, control groundwater, and underpin structures. Recent improvement in the sciences of frozen ground engineering and refrigeration technology have opened up many new economical opportunities for freezing in construction and mining industries. Therefore, in the last decade ground freezing has become a viable and competitive construction alternative for providing temporary ground support and groundwater control for excavations in difficult soil conditions. A wide variety of ground freezing projects in the United States have been inspected and accepted by OSHA, MSHA, EPA, and numerous other federal, state and local agencies.

Subject Headings: Groundwater | Frozen soils | Construction management | Soil stabilization | Freezing | Mines and mining | Excavation | Industrial facilities | Europe | United States

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