Pricing Armor Rock for Rubble Mound Breakwatersby R. A. Everist, L.C. Everist, Inc, Long Beach, United States,
Abstract: The pricing of armor rock by breakwater contractors is an inexact exercise. Each breakwater project is so site specific that standard costing methods are difficult to apply. The wide range of bids illustrates the difficulty of properly evaluating the construction of a permanent structure with natural materials in a marine environment. Observations in this paper are drawn from the experience of operating three hard rock quarries in the Middlewest of the United States and a large ocean loading quarry in Southern California.
Subject Headings: Riprap | Breakwaters | Pricing | Armor units | Construction costs | Rocks | Bids | Construction materials | Construction methods | North America | United States | California
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