Quartzite—A Hard Rock Approach to Rubble Mounds

by Robert B. Wendorf, Edward E. Gillen Co, Milwaukee, United States,

Document Type: Proceeding Paper

Part of: Durability of Stone for Rubble Mound Breakwaters


The quality of stone in rubble mound structures has always been a concern but seems to be more so the past few years. Breakwaters built in the 1920's using granite armour stone have withstood waves and ice and are in good condition today. In 1988, Gillen Company opened a quartzite quarry in Wisconsin; quartzite is a hard rock and very durable and could be ideal for rubble mound structures. The methods used to quarry rock and the handling from the quarry to the jobsite are also very important. Quartzite is generally more expensive than limestone, but it's hardness and durability make it cheaper for the life of the structure.

Subject Headings: Rocks | Riprap | Ice | Limestone | Material durability | Lifeline systems | Breakwaters | Hardness (material) | Wisconsin | United States

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