Laboratory Testing of Stone for Rubble Mound Breakwaters: An Evaluationby David A. Lienhart, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Cincinnati, United States,
Abstract: The quality of the final stone product hinges on the combination of two factors - rock properties and environmental conditions. The environmental conditions associated with production and final placement cannot be controlled but the rock properties of the final stone product can be. Through careful measurement and analysis of both the environmental conditions and the rock properties and a proper matching, a quality product can be produced. This requires a selection of adequate testing procedures appropriate for the intended environment and the development of a suitable set of acceptance criteria. Introduction ASTM (1991) defines breakwater stone as 'stone (generally three to twenty tons in weight) resulting from blasting, cutting, or other means to obtain rock heavy enough to require handling individual pieces by mechanical means.' Obviously, as the size requirement increases, both the inherent and superimposed properties and flaws have greater effect on the ability of the stone to perform as designed for a particular project. This leads to a need to test the material for evidence of acceptable quality. An additional need for testing is based on the acceptance criteria developed by the designer and, generally, is not consistent from one designer to another.
Subject Headings: Rock properties | Rocks | Environmental issues | Breakwaters | Laboratory tests | Material tests | Riprap | Hinges
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