Bering Sea Crude Oil Transportation Systemsby Dennis V. Padron, Han-Padron Associates, New York, NY, USA,
Edward H. Y. Han, Han-Padron Associates, New York, NY, USA,
Mark T. Faeth, Han-Padron Associates, New York, NY, USA,
Abstract: A study to evaluate and compare the technology and costs associated with crude oil transportation alternatives in the Bering Sea has been conducted. Existing and proposed offshore loading system (OLS) technology was identified and evaluated for performance in the harsh environment with severe ice conditions. Marine pipeline system data was developed sufficiently for a thorough cost comparison based primarily on an extrapolation of North Sea pipeline data. Environmental and crude oil production scenarios representative of the northern, central, and southern regions of the Bering Sea were defined. Reasonable crude oil transportation alternatives considered included various combinations of offshore and nearshore loading terminals, offshore and onshore storage facilities, transshipment terminals, marine and land pipelines, and ice-strengthened and conventional tankers. Each element of the transportation system was optimized for each alternative and the various alternatives for each scenario compared on the basis of cost, safety and reliability. A sensitivity analysis was performed.
Subject Headings: Seas and oceans | Petroleum | Offshore pipelines | Sensitivity analysis | Transportation studies | Comparative studies | Bering Sea | Arctic | North Sea
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