ACI 349 Embedments: Code Provisions and Methods of Analysis

by William P. Graf, Bechtel Power Corp, Norwalk, CA, USA,

Document Type: Proceeding Paper

Part of: Structural Engineering in Nuclear Facilities


Steel embedments form the critical link between steel and concrete structures. Appendix B of ACT 349, Code Requirements for Nuclear Safety Related Concrete Structures, specifies the ultimate strength of embedment anchorages in concrete. Part 1 of this paper examines and explains the provisions of this code for anchorage strength in both shear and tension. An elastic half-space solution is used to illustrate the approximate direction of radial principal stresses around an isolated anchor in tension. The shear friction mechanism used as a basis for code provisions is illustrated. Part II of this paper examines the implications of various methods of analysis. The importance of accounting for plate flexibility and concrete bearing is emphasized. A modified rigid plate assumption is demonstrated for the analysis of simple 4-bolt plates, and compared with a more rigorous finite element solution. Guidelines for finite element modeling are provided. Techniques for reducing the cost of iterative finite element solutions involving concrete bearing are suggested.

Subject Headings: Finite element method | Steel structures | Plates | Embedment | Standards and codes | Cold-formed steel | Concrete structures | Power plants

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