Deep Mixing Method: A Global Perspective

by Donald A. Bruce, (M.ASCE), Principal; ECO Geosystems Inc., Venetia, PA,
Mary Ellen C. Bruce, (M.ASCE), Pres.; Geotechnical, S.A., Inc., Venetia, PA,
Albert F. DiMillio, (M.ASCE), Geotechnical Res. Mgr.; U.S. Dept. of Transp., Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA,

Serial Information: Civil Engineering—ASCE, 1998, Vol. 68, Issue 12, Pg. 38-51

Document Type: Feature article


Various contemporary deep mixing method (DMM) techniques have been used in the United States since 1986. Such techniques owe their origins to Japanese and Scandinavian developments, which began almost three decades ago. The growing demands of urban infrastructure development and rehabilitation have created a very active and rapidly expanding market demand in the United States especially since the early 1990s. There is a clear need for a new and fundamental review of the surprisingly large number of DMM techniques that are being used domestically, or are available in other parts of the world. Following a summary tracing the historical development of DMM, and a generic classification of applications, the paper provides a review of each of the many different proprietary methods, which the authors have identified during preparation of an international survey funded by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Data are also provided on commercial aspects of the various DMM techniques worldwide.

Subject Headings: Federal government | Urban and regional development | Surveys (non-geomatic) | Surveying methods | Rehabilitation | Infrastructure | Computer vision and image processing

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