Costs and Benefits of Meeting the San Francisco Bay Copper Objective by Regulating Small Treatment Plants

by Steven X. McHaney, John Carollo Engineers, Walnut Creek, United States,

Document Type: Proceeding Paper

Part of: Hydraulic Engineering


Metals in aquatic environments, even in very small amounts, are of concern because of potential toxicity to aquatic life forms. Copper is of particular concern in the San Francisco Bay because of the sensitive nature of this stressed environment. The focus of regulatory attention has predominately been on currently permitted point source dischargers. The ubiquitous nonpoint sources, however, can be significant contributors of copper to the San Francisco Bay. Regulating small municipal treatment plants may incrementally help reduce copper discharges, but may have little overall effect on the total copper load to the San Francisco Bay. There are, however, some relative cost effective measures that small treatment plants can take to help reduce their copper discharge to the bay which may have localized benefits.

Subject Headings: Benefit cost ratios | Bays | Copper (chemical) | Aquatic habitats | Water pollution | Water treatment plants | Water discharge | Water quality | California | United States

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