Rock Excavations in Downtown Toronto

by J. Bennett, Trow Geotechnical Ltd, Canada,
S. A. Ahmad, Trow Geotechnical Ltd, Canada,
K. R. Peaker, Trow Geotechnical Ltd, Canada,

Document Type: Proceeding Paper

Part of: Foundation Engineering: Current Principles and Practices


The geology of Toronto area is somewhat complex due to the series of advances and retreats of the glaciers. The overburden deposits consist of materials laid down during the Wisconsinan and Illinoian Ice Ages. The underlying bedrock is shale belonging to the Georgian Bay Formation. Downtown Toronto is built up with large skyscrapers, which also necessitate large volumes of underground parking. In some of the newer tall buildings, up to 7 levels of basements are being installed with rock excavation exceeding 9 m. The paper presents a number of case histories, and describes the geology of downtown Toronto, as well as the geotechnical, chemical and mineralogical properties of the bedrock.

Subject Headings: Excavation | Business districts | Rocks | Geology | Bedrock | Rock properties | Rock mechanics | Shale | Toronto | Ontario | Canada

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