Concrete Replaces Steel in Offshore Coal-Loading Terminal

by A. G.F. Eddie, Consulting Engr.; Melbourne, Victoria, Australia,

Serial Information: Civil Engineering—ASCE, 1976, Vol. 46, Issue 4, Pg. 60-62

Document Type: Feature article


An open water coal-loading terminal off the east coast of Australia berths 100,000 dwt coal ships. The concrete caissons for the berth were constructed within a drydock and later a breakwater, cutting costs and delays compared to on-site construction due to rough seas and the costly oceangoing construction equipment. Wall panels in the caissons were precast to get better compaction and horizontal elements were cast in place. To avoid cracks in joints betweem these various sections, all joints exposed to the sea are post-tensioned. Providing the necessary smooth bed (—1-in.) in open water 55-ft deep was a challenge, met by custom built, underwater screeding frames. Its bottom element sits on the sea bottom; crushed stone destined for the bed is carried by a floating barge; and connecting them are a movable telescoping chute that directs stone to the proper spot, plus hydraulic control lines that are part of the system for moving under precise control the snout of the stonefeed chute.

Subject Headings: Construction equipment | Seas and oceans | Concrete | Steel | Offshore structures | Coal | Non-renewable energy | Berths | Australia

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