Intermediate Service Levels in Sanitation Systems

by John M. Kalbermatten,
DeAnne S. Julius,



Abstract: The major alternatives to sewerage are described and their potential for application in developing countries is explored. The reasons why conventional engineering practices have led to the selection of inappropriate technologies are examined. A least-cost comparison is made between sewerage and staged sanitation schemes, and recommendations for improved sanitation planning are presented.

Subject Headings: Sewers | Developing countries | Engineering profession | Financial management | Comparative studies

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