Horizontal Gradients in Sigma Transformed Bathymetries with Steep Bottom Slopes

by Guus S. Stelling, Delft Hydraulics, Delft, Netherlands,
Jan A. T. M. van Kester, Delft Hydraulics, Delft, Netherlands,

Abstract: Simulation of free surface flow and transport in areas such as seas, estuaries and river is often based upon three-dimensional modelling systems. Common characteristics of these modelling systems often are: Hydrostatic pressure assumption and sigma coordinate transformation as a basis for the numerical approximation in the vertical. Especially for steep bottom slopes combined with vertical stratification of the density, such as in estuaries, various numerical problems are encountered. This paper deals with algorithms to minimize these difficulties.

Subject Headings: Flow simulation | Three-dimensional models | Overland flow | Three-dimensional flow | Estuaries | Simulation models | Terrain models | Hydrologic models

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