Reliable Design-Wave Force Predictions for Seabed Pipelinesby Robert A. Grace, Univ of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, United States,
Abstract: The results of three separate field research projects have been pulled together to provide a design formula for maximum wave-induced horizontal force on a submarine pipe. This broadly-applicable equation, not of traditional form, covers a range of pipe clearances and pipe angles with respect to the wave fronts. The peak vertical forces are found to be virtually impossible to predict with precision. They are then normalized by the maximum horizontal forces and treated in frequency distribution form. The narrowness of peak force prediction is broadened, towards the end of the paper, with discussion of the natures and timing of the horizontal and vertical force traces adjoining their peaks.
Subject Headings: Wave forces | Wave measurement | Water waves | Underwater structures | Offshore pipelines | Vertical loads | Frequency distribution
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