Innovative Breakwater Designs on the Great Lakesby C. D. Anglin, W F Baird and Associates, Ottawa, Canada,
W. M. Brose, W F Baird and Associates, Ottawa, Canada,
K. J. MacIntosh, W F Baird and Associates, Ottawa, Canada,
D. J. Werren, W F Baird and Associates, Ottawa, Canada,
Abstract: Extensive investigations have recently been undertaken to support the development of rubblemound breakwater designs for new marinas at Kenosha and Sheboygan, WI, both located on the west shore of Lake Michigan. The primary objective of these investigations was to develop the optimum breakwater design for each site, considering: environmental (wave and water level) and site conditions; available construction materials; required performance (stability and agitation); ease of construction (land-based versus marine-based, equipment limitations); cost (capital versus maintenance). These investigations led to a number of innovative features in the breakwater designs which resulted in reduced costs and improved ease of construction, while meeting the specified performance criteria.
Subject Headings: Breakwaters | Lakes | Construction materials | Innovation | Construction sites | Construction costs | Site investigation | Construction equipment | Water waves | Great Lakes | Wisconsin | North America | Lake Michigan | United States
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