Turbines and Pump Turbines for Ultra High Headsby Nils H. Rømcke, Kvaerner Eureka a.s., Oslo, Norway,
Abstract: The paper describes the turbine development in Norway as background for high head turbine technology and shows a typical Norwegian high head Francis as an example. High head reversible Pump Turbines are among the most extreme high head turbines to day. The paper focuses on some special topics related to these machines and discusses the selection of specific speed at the highest heads. Structural design and material selection are important for both safety and efficiency. The paper describes safety policy based on modern methods of fracture mechanics and computerized analysis methods and makes comparisons to older designs. The scaling of turbine efficiency from model to prototype may be complicated for high head turbines. An example shows how structural design of a Francis turbine may change the efficiency.
Subject Headings: Turbines | Power plants | Pumps | People movers | Pumping stations | Hydraulic design | Hydro power | Structural safety | Europe | Norway
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