Pit Turbines, an Economical Solution for Low Heads

by Douglas A. Spaulding, Warzyn Engineering Inc, United States,

Document Type: Proceeding Paper

Part of: Waterpower '89


The paper describes the experience with pit turbine design and construction at the 8 MW St. Cloud facility located on the Mississippi River in Minnesota. Major topics in the paper include energy comparisons of pit turbines with comparably sized 'S' units and comparisons of civil costs for powerhouse construction. The paper will also describe the results of the performance tests for the units.

Subject Headings: Head (fluid mechanics) | Construction management | Hydro power | Rivers and streams | Turbines | Minnesota | United States | North America | Mississippi River

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