Pit Turbines, an Economical Solution for Low Headsby Douglas A. Spaulding, Warzyn Engineering Inc, United States,
Abstract: The paper describes the experience with pit turbine design and construction at the 8 MW St. Cloud facility located on the Mississippi River in Minnesota. Major topics in the paper include energy comparisons of pit turbines with comparably sized 'S' units and comparisons of civil costs for powerhouse construction. The paper will also describe the results of the performance tests for the units.
Subject Headings: Power plants | Turbines | Hydro power | Economic factors | Head (fluid mechanics) | Electric power | Construction costs | Comparative studies | Electrical equipment | Mississippi River | North America | Minnesota | United States
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