Hydro Turbine Submergenceby James L. Gordon, Monenco Consultants Ltd, Canada,
Abstract: The elevation of a hydro-electric turbine above or below tailwater is based on hydraulic model studies to determine the critical sigma, defined as the ratio of barometric pressure plus submergence depth at which cavitation commences, all divided by the rated head. An analysis of more than 80 existing turbines, has shown that turbine setting is a function of the turbine throat velocity head, the number of runner blades and the atmospheric pressure. Submergence Equations are developed for horizontal or vertical axis Kaplan, propeller and Francis units, along with equations for determining turbine throat diameter based on the desired setting.
Subject Headings: Turbines | Submerging | Hydro power | Hydraulic pressure | Tailwater | Hydraulic models | Model analysis | Cavitation
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