Building on Water

by George C. Fotinos, Ben C. Gerwick, Inc., 500 Sansome St., San Francisco, CA 94111,


Serial Information: Civil Engineering—ASCE, 1986, Vol. 56, Issue 10, Pg. 45-47


Document Type: Feature article

Abstract: During the last century, innovations in concrete have paved the way for the evolution of marine concrete structures. Oakland's proposed Carnation Container Terminal is using a ductile moment resistant frame to allow it to survive seismic loads. The new terminal will have a reinforced concrete flat plate deck on vertical piles with no batter piles. Another innovation is the increased use of nonlinear finite element analysis made possible by the use of computers. Such structures use materials more efficiently than conventionally designed structures, making them particularly suitable in applications where vast amounts of materials would be needed. Another innovation is the use of prestressed concrete fender piles. Although these were first used in the 1950s, health concerns over creosote treated wood have spurred renewed interest in them. In addition to improved design techniques, new materials, such as silica fume concrete and epoxy coated steel, are also changing the way marine concrete structures are built.

Subject Headings: Concrete | Concrete structures | Innovation | Marine terminals | Offshore structures

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