Francis Turbine Surge Prediction and Preventionby P. Doerfler, Sulzer-Escher Wyss Ltd, Zurich, Switzerland,
Abstract: Every Francis turbine has some range(s) of load where the flow in the draft tube is subject to fluctuations. Various types of surge during 'steady-state' operation can be distinguished with frequencies ranging roughly from 0. 2 to 2 times the frequency of runner revolution. Most of them are caused by the swirl leaving the runner, hence their occurrence in correlation with the relative load on the turbine. Some, but not all of them can be avoided. Those which cannot, must be kept within acceptable limits of amplitude regarding pressure, power, and eventually component or building vibrations. This paper is a survey of concepts available today for that purpose.
Subject Headings: Turbines | Hydraulic models | Hydraulic loads | Load factors | Vibration | Hydraulic transients | Mathematical models | Transient loads
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