Single Point Moorings for the Bering Seaby René Loire, Inst Engineering Co, Marine, Facilities Dep, San Francisco, CA, USA,
Way Y. Chow, Inst Engineering Co, Marine, Facilities Dep, San Francisco, CA, USA,
Abstract: Multi or single-legged buoy systems such as conventional CALMs or SALMs would not survive the winter season in the Bering Sea because the forces generated in the anchoring chains by pack-ice directly acting on the buoys are much too high. The authors propose three alternate Single Point Moorings (SPMs) that are designed to meet specific oil loading requirements in moderately and part-time frozen Bering Sea in a variety of water depths. 'VOILA' is an ice-breaking articulated loading arm for deep waters. 'ICETRAM' is a mostly subsea compliant system that can be used in a wide range of depths. 'ICEPROUD' is a fixed mooring for coastal shallow waters.
Subject Headings: Mooring | Seas and oceans | Ice loads | Anchors | Offshore platforms | Winter | Bering Sea | Arctic
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