Effects of External Loadings on Large-Diameter Buried Pipelinesby Victor Manikian, Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Anchorage, AK, USA,
Howard P. Thomas, Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Anchorage, AK, USA,
Abstract: Development of oil and gas resources in the far north has involved extensive use of buried steel pipelines. Buried pipelines, particularly onshore, are frequently subjected to heavy superimposed external loadings. During development of the oil fields, traffic from large, heavily-loaded gravel trucks and crawlers carrying sometimes-enormous modules is frequent. A state-of-the-practice design procedure is presented for calculating pipe ovalling deflections and stresses which has been applied in several pipeline projects in Alaska. The procedure models the soil-pipe interaction, characterizing the sidefill by an appropriate modulus value. Pipeline operating characteristics including temperature and internal pressure are addressed and initial pipe out-of-roundness can be taken into account. Hoop bending and tensile stresses are combined in an appropriate fashion with longitudinal stresses.
Subject Headings: Buried pipes | Steel pipes | Load factors | Offshore pipelines | Pressure pipes | Soil modulus | Oil pipelines | Gas pipelines | North America | Arctic | Alaska | United States
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