Creep Properties of Ice: Theory and Experimentby A. M. Vinogradov, Univ of Calgary, Dep of Civil, Engineering, Calgary, Alberta, Canada,
Abstract: In recent years, intensive developments in Northern regions have increased the demand for solutions to a large number of engineering problems involving ice mechanics. In particular, these problems are associated with the analysis and design of ice roads and bridges, aircraft landing fields, frozen foundations and floating ice platforms. A critical review is presented of the creep theories for ice. It is concluded that no unified constitutive model currently in use is able to represent the mechanical properties of ice for a broad range of state parameters. Attention is focused on the linear viscoelastic theory in application to isothermal quasi-static loading conditions and relatively low deformation rates. The constitutive relations are formulated in terms of hereditary integral equations. The uniaxial creep testing procedure is considered as most direct means of obtaining the characteristic functions involved in the general viscoelastic theory. 30 Refs.
Subject Headings: Ice | Creep | Viscoelasticity | Highway and road design | Bridge foundations | Foundation design | Bridge design | Constitutive relations | Arctic
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