Tanker Mooring/Loading Systems for Northern Offshore Arctic Regionsby C. P. Manoudakis, Brian Watt Associates Inc, Houston, TX, USA,
G. C. White, Brian Watt Associates Inc, Houston, TX, USA,
V. R. Milano, Brian Watt Associates Inc, Houston, TX, USA,
Abstract: Transportation of crude oil in arctic areas via shuttle tankers can prove to be a viable alternative to a pipeline system. The shuttle tanker system will require offshore terminals equipped with suitable loading/mooring facilities. Year round berthing and loading of large displacement vessels in unprotected arctic offshore areas is a feasible yet untried concept. The principal design variables for mooring/loading systems for offshore arctic applications are discussed. The underlying considerations for the design of these facilities are highlighted and a number of mooring/loading options are presented. Methods to determine the mooring loads and the behavior of the moored vessel are also described.
Subject Headings: Offshore structures | Mooring | Structural behavior | Load factors | Ice loads | Ships | Wells (oil and gas) | Oil pipelines | Arctic
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