Grid Pavement
Open grid pavements consist of concrete or plastic units with large surface openings filled with a permeable joint material, typically small aggregate (ASTM No. 8 or No. 89), sand, or...

Achieving Success and Avoiding Failures with Permeable Pavements
This chapter provides experienced-based recommendations on how to achieve success with permeable pavements. This information is based on an informational survey completed by designers,...

Maintenance
While site selection and proper construction are the most critical factors in establishing that permeable pavements function as designed, all must be inspected and maintained to maximize...

Hydrologic and Hydraulic Design Methods
Computational methods for hydrologic analysis, hydraulic functions, and treatment capacity of permeable pavements vary depending on the complexity of the design and level of detail in...

Quality Assurance/Quality Control
The contract between the purchaser and the supplier shall state the responsibilities of each party and the conditions under which the work will be accepted or rejected....

Initial Criteria
Microtunneling is appropriate for a wide range of conditions. Careful evaluation of certain parameters will determine the applicability and constructability of a potential microtunneling...

Preliminary Geotechnical Considerations
In the planning phase of the project, a preliminary geotechnical investigation should be performed to identify the general subsurface conditions and any special subsurface conditions....

Project Layout
Microtunneling projects should be laid out with attention to the benefits and constraints unique to this construction process. The following recommendations address some of these concerns:...

Cost Considerations
Cost is an important consideration when comparing microtunneling with other construction methods. Direct costs should not be the only consideration. Microtunneling has other benefits that...

Microtunneling Design Elements
The design elements and the process for a microtunneling project are generally the same as for other underground projects. Design elements include the following: General conditions; Special...

Contract Documents
As with any civil works project, the bid and contract documents prepared by the owner and the engineer should provide the contractor with the necessary information to prepare bids, to...

Field Aspects
As soon as practical after their arrival at the project site, all pipes, fittings, and appurtenances should be thoroughly checked for compliance with the contract documents and accepted...

Machine Performance
Annular Thickness, Annulus, and Annular Space; Overcut; Slurry or Auger System; Cutter Wheel Design and Select; Slurry Separation Plant; Buried Objects and Obstruction; Steering....

Shafts/Temporary Structures
Shafts should be of a size to accommodate the equipment and pipe selected and to allow for safe working practices. If the shaft must accommodate the permanent works, it is the contractor's...

Construction Support Services
A preconstruction survey of existing structures within the anticipated construction zone of influence should be conducted before any construction begins. A plan for structures that need...

Regulations
The contractor should meet federal, state, and local regulations. The contractor is responsible for jobsite safety....

Restoration and Cleanup
The contractor should be responsible for site restoration and keeping the construction site clean, neat, and orderly at all times....

Measurement and Payment
The owner shall establish a bid schedule to obtain pricing for all work associated with the microtunneling installation. This bid schedule provides the bidders the opportunity to establish...

Filling The Bay: Deepening the Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors
The project to deepen the Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors from elevation -42 to -50 ft was federally authorized in 1999 to accommodate the next generation of post-Panamax container ships....

Innovative Use of a Groin Structure: Saving Cost, Shortening the Schedule, and Minimizing Impacts
Almost any type of construction activity can pose a shock to the surrounding environment and habitat. Obviously, the extent of the impact will depend on the location of the project and...

 

 

 

 

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