Reconstruction of the West Breakwater at Port Sines, Portugal
This volume, Reconstruction of the West Breakwater at Port Sines, Portugal, is a collection of papers presented at a seminar held at Sines,...

Design of Shotcrete Support from the Rock Mechanical Viewpoint
When designing tunnel support the key question is to determine the loading conditions resulting from the deformation of the rock mass during and after excavation. Principle views are given...

High-Grade Concrete for the Single Permanent Shotcrete Lining Method
With the single permanent shotcrete lining method in underground construction in rock, a shotcrete layer placed subsequently to the application of the supporting shotcrete replaces the...

Design and Application of Integrated Shotcrete Linings for Underground Openings in Weak Rock Masses
Tunnels and caverns excavated in weak rock masses require special consideration in terms of shotcrete lining design. Shotcrete as a support medium for weak rock provides major benefits...

Guidelines for Shotcrete Support in Hard Rock
The writer is working on a handbook on shotcrete in hard rock. The work is sponsored by the Swedish Power Board, Development Division. The main contents are: Choice of shotcrete support...

Steel Fiber Reinforced Shotcrete—For Rock Support and Fire Protection
Rapid development in concrete technology and development of equipment has led to a change from dry hand-operated to wet robot shotcreting in Norway. Shotcrete of more than 100 MPa cube...

Principles for a Rational Design of Shotcrete Linings in Hard Rock
The rock load on a shotcrete lining is hard to determine. This fact, however, does not prevent from designing the lining in a rational and consequent way. The paper treats the problem...

Guidelines and Recommendations on Shotcrete—An International Compilation
Part of the work within the International Tunnelling Association's (ITA) working group Shotcrete Use has been to compile existing guidelines and recommendations concerning shotcrete, particularly...

Fission Product Distribution in Nuclear Test Cavities/Chimneys
When a nuclear device is exploded, residual radioactive material is distributed throughout the resulting underground cavity and rubble chimney. Refractory materials are more concentrated...

A Condition Rating System for Rubble Breakwaters and Jetties
This paper describes one aspect of a series of projects which the U.S. Army Corps of Engineering has undertaken in an effort to improve maintenance management of coastal and navigational...

Design Manual for Artificial Reefs
Artificial reefs are wave-breaking structures artificially constructed from rubble to mimic the wave-control functions of coral reefs. Since these structures are located below sea level,...

Mechanics of Riprap Movement in Tidal Flow
This analysis emphasizes the need to obtain data on the size and shape of riprap pieces as a function of movement, data which are surprisingly difficult to obtain from published studies....

Design of Riprap Stilling Basin for Overhanging Pipe
The rock rip-rap basin is the most common and economical method of handling the problem of scour at a pipe outlet. The advantage of the method is speed of construction, absence of the...

The Study of Riprap as Scour Protection for Bridge Abutments
The purpose of this paper is to provide design guidelines for riprap protection of spill-through and vertical-wall abutments situated in floodplains. With the benefit of laboratory experiments,...

Riprap Design at Bridges–Factor of Safety Approach
The factor of safety method offers a physically based methodology for design of riprap that relates the applied shear stress on the channel boundary to the stability of the riprap layer....

Riprap Coverage Around Bridge Piers
Experiments were conducted to examine the effect of riprap size and coverage on reducing local scour at bridge piers. Pier diameter, bed material size, riprap size and diameter were varied...

Riprap Incipient Motion and Shields' Parameter
Unobstructed incipient motion data from a variety of sources are compiled to re-examine current thinking regarding riprap stability. Shields' framework is investigated and relationships...

Methods for Prediction of Maximum Scour at Coastal Structures
The most common coast scour-related problems are toe scour at rubble mound structures and vertical seawalls, and scour at the base of piles and horizontal pipelines. Existing scour prediction...

Durability of Armor Stone for Rubble Mound Structures

Laboratory Testing of Stone for Rubble Mound Breakwaters: An Evaluation
The quality of the final stone product hinges on the combination of two factors - rock properties and environmental conditions. The environmental conditions associated with production...

 

 

 

 

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