Effect of Channel Shape on Gradually Varied Flow Profiles
An analysis of gradually varied flow profiles with Froude number as a reference parameter is made. Generalized nondimensional varied flow profiles of the M and S types are computed for...

Efficiency of Hydraulic Jump
It has been shown that the existing definitions of the efficiency of hydraulic jump do not furnish a correct picture of the physical phenomenon. A more rational definition of the efficiency...

Hydrodynamic Effects of Seepage on Bed Particles
The effect of effluent and influent seepage on the hydrodynamic forces acting on an idealized noncohesive sediment particle are investigated experimentally. The hydrodynamic conditions...

Fluid Force Analysis and Accelerating Sphere Tests
An adequate expression for the fluid force on an accelerating body depends on whether the history of motion is repetitive. The conventional form for periodic motion consists of the sum...

Drag Coefficients in Nonsteady Turbulent Flow
Drag coefficients for spheres in nonsteady turbulent flow are found to be functions of the acceleration number, and either the particle Reynolds number or the relative turbulence intensity...

Junction Losses in Laminar and Transitional Flows
Analytical and experimental studies were carried out to develop additional data on energy losses at a junction for systems operating in the Reynolds number range of between 10 and 10,000....

Experiments on Plane Couette Flow
A simple method for generating plane Couette flow is described. In this technique the water surface of a covered open-channel flume represents the moving boundary, and measurements are...

Fluid-Dynamic Consideration of Bottom Materials
Bottom materials often involve clay-water suspensions which evidence complex rheology. Studies of the non-Newtonian behavior of kaolin are reported herein. Concentric viscometer analysis...

Characteristics of Flow over Weirs of Finite Crest Width
The characteristics of flow over weirs of rectangular cross-section with finite crest width depend on h/P, h/B, a characteristic Reynolds number, K/h, and Weber number, wherein h, P, B,...

Dispersion in Natural Streams
The one-dimensional mathematical model of dispersion has been developed to account for the loss of dye due to decay and adsorption. This model predicts the time-concentration of the conservative...

Anemometer Height in Froude Scaling of Wind Stress
Extending previously proposed Froude scaling of wind stress coefficients, the paper suggests the appropriate anemometer heights for different wind fetches, and proposes a procedure of...

Unified Analysis of Grid Turbulence
The deficiencies of the conventional power laws for the decay of grid turbulence, i.e., the discontinuous change from an initial to a final zone and the undefined range of validity, have...

Modelling Tidal Flow from Harbors
Problems concerned with the tidal flow of water into and out of harbors are difficult to solve mathematically. For the case of flow in a channel the Froude number may be considered to...

Bed Topography Effect on Flow in a Meander
Stabilized bed topography in a meandering channel with fixed walls and movable bed was measured at various width-depth ratios and Froude numbers. Velocity and bed-shear distributions were...

Flow in Conduits with Low Roughness Concentration
Transition functions which relate the friction factor and the relative roughness to the Reynolds number are obtained by utilizing the basic laws for turbulent flow in conduits plus the...

Sediment Sampling Efficiency of Slots
The sediment sampling efficiency of two-dimensional slots in open channel was studied. Eight fractions of sand and gravel were used ranging in size from 0.2 mm to 4.5 mm. A universal relation...

Scaling Methods for Surface Aerators
The scaling laws for relating the performance of different-sized surface aerators are reviewed. It is concluded that complete dynamic similarity, stipulated by simultaneous equality of...

Surface Tension in Froude Models
A criterion for avoiding surface tension effects in Froude models is obtained analytically for uniform flows. Experiments show that surface tension does not, in practice, limit the scale...

Resistance Coefficient of Uniform-Sand Roughness
The Weisbach resistance coefficient, f, is a boundary-drag coefficient. In the gross sense over a finite length of boundary, the coefficient...

Development of Roll-Wave Trains in Open Channels
The maximum depth at wave crest, minimum depth at wave trough, wave period and wave velocity of spontaneously developed roll-wave trains were measured in a laboratory channel. Channel...

 

 

 

 

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