Characterization of Offshore and Coastal Ice Conditions
Seasonal sea ice conditions typical of nearshore coastal zones are reviewed. Prominent ice features influencing design ice conditions for offshore structures are described. This paper...

Design of Prefabricated Offshore Structures for Ice Forces
The design of fixed offshore structures to resist forces from sea ice features is reviewed. The emphasis is on prefabricated structures constructed elsewhere, towed to location and installed,...

Design of Manmade Offshore Islands for Ice Forces
Approximately sixty percent of the undiscovered oil and fifty percent of the undiscovered gas probably lies in the sedimentary basins offshore Alaska (USGS 1980). Because of this hydrocarbon...

Design of Port and Coastal Structures for Ice Forces
Design of ice-affected port and coastal structures cannot be addressed in a few single specific terms, but must instead account for a matrix of elements differing at each site. Evaluation...

Design of Offshore Pipelines for Ice Environments
Design and installation of offshore pipelines in cold regions requires special care. Low ambient temperatures may cause increased friction losses in oil and gas lines due to wax crystallization...

Design of Ships for Ice Environments
A number of feasibility studies have proven the reliability of marine transportation for the Arctic. Current research and development in this field, especially in the USA and Canada, is...

River and Lake Ice Processes Relevant to Ice Loads
Ice effects on engineering structures in inland waters are more widespread than generally appreciated. Troublesome ice conditions can be expected regularly north of the 0 degree C January...

Measurement of Ice Forces on Structures
Methodologies and techniques are discussed for measuring ice forces on fixed structures situated in rivers and lakes. The usual method of measuring ice forces is to place a load frame...

Design of Bridges for Ice Forces
Sources of knowledge on ice forces and ice effects on bridges are listed and discussed briefly. Comments are made on experience of damage by ice and on the influence on bridge costs of...

Design of Navigational Structures for Ice Forces
An overview of ice conditions and the types of ice action that are hazardous to navigational structures is presented. Depending on the circumstances, ice failure against structures occurs...

Design of Submerged and Floating Structures
The objective of this paper is to present an overview of the state-of-the-art of ice engineering as applied to submerged and floating structures. Five specific design studies are reviewed,...

Methods of Ice Control
Ice control is the practice of holding ice in place or directing its growth and movement. Methods of ice control in navigable waters including locks are presented. Ice carried downstream...

Frazil Ice

Hydraulic Resistance of River Ice

Ice Jams

Effects of an Ice Cover—A Conceptual Model

Analysis of the Variation of River Stage in the Freezing Season for Some Cases on the Yellow River

Unsteady River Flow beneath an Ice Cover

Floodplain Delineation in Ice Jam Prone Regions

First-Generation Model of Ice Deterioration

 

 

 

 

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