Steady-State Estimation of Cooling Pond Performance
This note gives steady-state formulae and diagrams for the intake temperature for three types of cooling ponds; deep stratified cooling pond, shallow dispersive cooling pond and shallow...

Flow Induced Vibration in Circulating Water System
Vibration and pressure surges in the early operation of the circulating water system of the 515 MW Muskogee Power Plant Unit No. 4 caused concern for the future structural integrity of...

Construction and Design of Large Cooling Towers
Large natural-draft cooling towers are required for dry-type cooling of power plants having high capacity. Through the choice of an appropriate offset distance between the axis of the...

Design Criteria for Cooling-Water Outlet Structures
This paper describes some laboratory studies utilizing buoyant and nonbuoyant tracers to investigate the effects of the initial conditions on the lateral mixing of cooling water or wastewater...

Guyed Towers Under Arbitrary Loads
A new method for the static analysis of guyed towers has been developed. The tower and guy cables may be loaded by arbitrary distributed or concentrated forces, or both, and there are...

Wind Effects on Cooling-Tower Shells
The design of natural-draft cooling towers is dominated by wind action. With respect to the response of the structure the wind load may be divided into a static, a quasistatic, and a resonant...

Cooling Towers Using Measured Wind Data
The purpose of this study is to collect and interpret the results of full-scale wind-pressure measurements that are available for hyperbolic cooling towers and to determine the corresponding...

Wind Loading and Response of Cooling Towers
The paper considers wind loadings on cooling towers from both a static and dynamic point of view. Field measurements of wind pressure on full-scale towers provide the main basis for study,...

Wind Loading on Cooling Towers
A wind-tunnel technique for the assessment of wind induced stresses in cooling tower shells has been developed. It includes simulation of the atmospheric wind and aeroelastic models of...

Accuracy of Harbeck Diagram for Forced Evaporation
The Harbeck Diagram, a method for estimating the forced evaporation from a cooling pond, gives the fraction of heat load dissipated by evaporation as a function of windspeed and natural...

Hybrid Cooling System Thermodynamics and Economics
Wet cooling towers can be used as helper systems with once-through cooling at river-side power-plant sites where the permissible river heat assimilation capacity is inadequate to absorb...

Density Currents in Sidearms of Cooling Ponds
The design of cooling ponds for dissipating the water heat from steam electric power plants requires the determination of the amount of surface heat loss from the sidearms. The similarly...

Performance of Power Plant Cooling Lakes in Poland
Poland's Institute of Meteorology and Water Management conducted a study to determine the effectiveness of cooling lakes in dissipating the waste heat from steam electric...

Thermal Structure of Cooling Ponds
The vertical stratification of cooling ponds is considered in a quasi-steady framework. Criteria based upon a nondimensional pond number are derived categorizing cooling ponds into the...

Transient Analysis for Shallow Cooling Ponds
A transient model, based on the concept of equilibrium temperature TE, and surface heat transfer coefficient K, is used to explore the transient...

Cooling Towers with Circumferential Imperfections
The effects of out-of-roundness errors, that cab be introduced durning the construction of cooling tower shells, on the linear stress distributions are examined. Using a simplified, statically...

Water Use For Electric Power Generation

West Virginia Cooling Tower Collapse Caused by Premature Form Removal
The collapse of a reinforced concrete cooling tower under construction at Willow Island, W.Va. in April 1978 resulted in 51 fatalities, making it the worst construction accident in American...

Willow Island Aftermath: The Limits of OSHA
In April 1978 a natural-draft hyperbolic concrete cooling tower under construction at Willow Island, W.Va. collapsed. Fifty-one workers, suspended on a scaffold supported mainly by a layer...

Cognac: World's Tallest Offshore Oil Platform
Shell Oil's 1980 OCEA-winner is a three-sectioned design of steel fabrication and deep-sea installation. Cognac is currently the world's tallest, heaviest, and...

 

 

 

 

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