Intermediate Service Levels in Water Distribution

by Donald T. Lauria,
Peter J. Kolsky,
Richard N. Middleton,

Document Type: Proceeding Paper

Part of: Appropriate Technology in Water Supply and Waste Disposal


This paper is concerned with design standards for secondary water distribution networks. Based on field studies in the Middle East and Africa, mathematical equations were developed for predicting the length and mean diameter of network piping for given values of system variables. When coupled with local cost data, these equations enable prediction of system costs for a variety of design conditions, and hence provide a basis for decisions on design variables such as the spacing of public standposts, minimum network pressure and per capita flow.

Subject Headings: Water supply systems | Water level | Field tests | Benefit cost ratios | Standards and codes | Mathematics | Pipes | Coupling | Middle East | Africa

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