Surface Jet Model for Heated Discharges

by Louis H. Motz, Hydrol.; U.S. Geological Survey, Tampa, FL; formerly, Res. Asst., Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN,
Barry A. Benedict, Asst. Prof. of Hydr. and Water Resources Engrg.; Dept. of Envir. and Water Resources Engrg., Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN,

Serial Information: Journal of the Hydraulics Division, 1972, Vol. 98, Issue 1, Pg. 181-199

Document Type: Journal Paper


A system of equations is developed which, when solved numerically, predicts the jet trajectory, width, velocity, and temperature decrease for the case of a two-dimensional surface jet. The results of field and laboratory equipment indicate that entrainment is reduced as the discharge angle is reduced from 90° to 60° and 45°; thus, the drag coefficient decreases as the velocity ratio is increased. The results of five surveys indicate that the entrainment coefficient was reasonably constant for three surveys at one field site even when the velocity ratio was changed. The results also indicate that entrainment is a function of the ratio of the ambient width to the discharge width, which was different at each of the field sites studied. The observed field values of the drag coefficient appear to be a function of the velocity ratio and agreed well with the values observed in the laboratory.

Subject Headings: Jets (fluid) | Entrainment | Terrain models | Drag (fluid dynamics) | Site surveys | Fluid velocity | Numerical methods | Case studies

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