Wetland Designs for Environmental Protection—Application in India

by Subijoy Dutta,
Dennis A. Haag,
Jon B. Kraft,

Document Type: Proceeding Paper

Part of: North American Water and Environment Congress & Destructive Water


In many developing countries raw sewage are discharged into rivers and lakes. This practice causes severe degradation of regional water quality, and often results in serious public health problems. Constructed wetlands provide a cost-effective solution to the problem, effectively removing over 90% of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and other pollutants. Constructed wetlands have also been demonstrated to effectively remove metals and treat landfill leachate. Application of constructed wetland systems for treating sewage has been initiated in New Delhi and Vellore, India. Successful demonstration of constructed wetland systems will assist in the development, commercialization and diffusion of this technology in poor, rural areas of the U.S. and abroad.

Subject Headings: Wetlands (fresh water) | Developing countries | Hydraulic design | Sewage | Water quality | Public health and safety | Subsurface flow | Waste treatment | India | Asia

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