Removal of Arsenic by Enhanced Coagulation and Membrane Technology

by S. David Chang,
Hector Ruiz,
William D. Bellamy,
Carl W. Spangenberg,
Debra L. Clark,

Document Type: Proceeding Paper

Part of: Critical Issues in Water and Wastewater Treatment


The U.S. EPA is promulgating a new MCL for arsenic based on epidemiology studies. The concern from the water industry is that the new MCL will be significantly lower than the current MCL of 50 ?g/L. The new MCL, some speculate may be as low as 2 ?g/L or less, is expected to have a significant impact on water utilities that depend on groundwater supply or use aquifer storage and recovery technology for potable water resources. A questionnaire sent to the participants at the Arsenic Workshop (May, 1993) sponsored by Association of California Water Agencies and the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California indicated that 66% of the 50 water agencies responded will not be in compliance if the new MCL is set at 5 ?g/L. The issues concern most of the water utilities are compliance cost and treatment technologies. There are very few, if any, water utilities that are treating water with the objective of removing arsenic to levels less than 2 ?g/L. Some technologies such as reverse osmosis are capable of removing arsenic to a very low level, however, there is no data available due to the analytical limitation. All these information are critical to the development of treatment technologies and compliance cost.

Subject Headings: Water treatment | Arsenic | Water resources | Utilities | Membranes | Coagulation | Benefit cost ratios

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