A Gap in the Surface Water Treatment Rule: The Watersheds

by Daniel A. Okun, Univ of North Carolina at Chapel, Hill, Chapel Hill, United States,

Document Type: Proceeding Paper

Part of: Critical Issues in Water and Wastewater Treatment


Watershed control is required by the Surface Water Treatment Rule of the 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act for systems that do not provide filtration. Where filtration is available, no watershed protection is prescribed by the federal government. The oocysts of Cryptosporidium, which are difficult to remove by filtration and almost impossible to inactivate by chlorination, are highly infective. Measures are required to fill the gap in providing watershed control for the 90% of the surface water supplies in the U.S. that are now filtered.

Subject Headings: Water treatment | Water quality | Water pollution | Water supply | Water policy | Surface water | Watersheds

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