Deformations in Sand Layer During Pile Driving

by Francis D. Leathers, (M.ASCE), GEI Consultants, Inc, Winchester, United States,

Document Type: Proceeding Paper

Part of: Vertical and Horizontal Deformations of Foundations and Embankments


This paper presents measurements of settlement and lateral soil movements in a medium dense to dense sand layer due to densification during driving of precast concrete piles. At one end of the site where the Standard Penetration Test (SPT) blow counts in the sand were generally 12 to 44 blows per foot, settlements of up to 54 mm (2.1 in.) and lateral movements of up to 18 mm (0.7 in.) toward the zone of pile driving were measured despite the displacement of the piles. At the other end of the site where SPT blow counts were generally 30 to 60 blows per foot, settlement was still observed, but the magnitude was less than 10 mm (0.4 in.). The estimated average volumetric densification of the sand was about 1.7% in the medium dense sand and about 1.4% in the dense sand. Excess piezometric head equal to 24.4 m (80 ft) of water was measured in the medium dense sand near the piles during driving.

Subject Headings: Soil deformation | Penetration tests | Sandy soils | Soil settlement | Layered soils | Pile driving | Concrete piles | Pile tests

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