Seismic Performance and Retrofit of the Golden Gate Bridge

by Charles Seim, T.Y. Lin Int, San Francisco, United States,
Santiago Rodriguez, T.Y. Lin Int, San Francisco, United States,

Document Type: Proceeding Paper

Part of: Structural Engineering in Natural Hazards Mitigation


The Golden Gate Bridge has served for over fifty years as a vital transportation link connecting San Francisco with the area to the north. The Bridge is owned, operated, and maintained by the Golden Gate Bridge Highway and Transportation District (District). Immediately after the Loma Prieta earthquake, the District engaged T.Y. Lin International (TYLI) to perform seismic evaluation and retrofit studies of the bridge. These studies concluded that a major earthquake could cause severe damage to the bridge and a prolonged interruption of traffic. The seismic retrofit studies consisted of the following four stages: 1) Evaluating the seismic risk and generation of site specific ground motions and response spectra, 2) defining performance levels and developing design criteria, 3) performing both linear and nonlinear seismic analyses, and 4) developing conceptual retrofit designs.

Subject Headings: Seismic design | Seismic tests | Rehabilitation | Linear analysis | Structural design | Steel structures | Steel bridges | California | United States

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