Pricing Armor Rock for Rubble Mound Breakwaters

by R. A. Everist, L.C. Everist, Inc, Long Beach, United States,

Document Type: Proceeding Paper

Part of: Durability of Stone for Rubble Mound Breakwaters


The pricing of armor rock by breakwater contractors is an inexact exercise. Each breakwater project is so site specific that standard costing methods are difficult to apply. The wide range of bids illustrates the difficulty of properly evaluating the construction of a permanent structure with natural materials in a marine environment. Observations in this paper are drawn from the experience of operating three hard rock quarries in the Middlewest of the United States and a large ocean loading quarry in Southern California.

Subject Headings: Coastal protection structures | Breakwaters | Riprap | Pricing | Rocks | Construction methods | Contracts and subcontracts | United States | California

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