Implementation and Performance of Berm Breakwater Design at Racine, WI

by Robert J. Montgomery, Warzyn Engineering, United States,
Gregory J. Hofmeister, Warzyn Engineering, United States,
William F. Baird, Warzyn Engineering, United States,

Document Type: Proceeding Paper

Part of: Berm Breakwaters: Unconventional Rubble-Mound Breakwaters


A large berm-type breakwater has been constructed at the entrance to Racine Harbor, Wisconsin, on the western shore of Lake Michigan. The breakwater is approximately 450 feet long, in water depths of 20 to 25 feet, and utilizes dolomite armor stone in the weight range 300 to 8000 lbs. The design storm maximum significant wave height was 14.5 feet. The berm design was developed in an extensive physical modeling study, with construction plans and contract specifications developed using the model study results and knowledge of local constuction materials and contracting conditions. Construction of the breakwater was completed in the Fall of 1986. This paper focuses on the process of building the berm breakwater in a bid/contract environment, and on the performance of the breakwater in major storms which occurred in February and March of 1987.

Subject Headings: Breakwaters | Coastal protection structures | Berms | Lakes | Ports and harbors | Rocks | Storms | Armor units | Great Lakes | Wisconsin | United States | Lake Michigan

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