Milan's Model Metro

by Virginia Fairweather, Editor; Civil Engineering, 345 E. 47th St., New York, NY 10017,

Serial Information: Civil Engineering—ASCE, 1987, Vol. 57, Issue 12, Pg. 40-43

Document Type: Feature article


A number of innovative geotechnical methods were used at the extension of the Milan, Italy, subway. Jet grouting, a technique used only a few times in the United States, was notable among these. In this method air, water and slurry are pressure-injected into soils and mixed in place with the soil particles, and cement or chemical grout. In some instances, depending on the project requirements, the procedure is modified to replace soils with the grout and undesirable soils are removed through water jetting to the surface. At some sections of the Milan project, jet grouting is used horizontally to stabilize soils and ahead of the tunnel and allow for excavation by conventional equipment. Elsewhere it is used vertically to form retaining walls. In other sections of the tunnels, boring machines were used, but in most cases in the sandy alluvial soils, jet-grouting proved more economical. Risk-sharing contractual arrangements are also discussed for the 28 km, 32 station expansion, which will cost $1.8 billion when it is completed in 1992.

Subject Headings: Soil grouting | Soil water | Jet grouting | Soil pressure | Soil cement | Subways | Soil mixing | Chemical grouting | Italy | Europe | United States

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