Probability Based Load Criteria: Load Factors and Load Combinations

by Bruce Ellingwood, (A.M.ASCE), Research Struct. Engr.; Center for Building Tech., National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C.,
James G. MacGregor, (F.ASCE), Prof. of Civ. Engrg.; Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada,
Theodore V. Galambos, (F.ASCE), Prof. of Civ. Engrg.; Washington Univ., St. Louis, Mo.,
C. Allin Cornell, (M.ASCE), Prof. of Civ. Engrg.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, Mass.,

Serial Information: Journal of the Structural Division, 1982, Vol. 108, Issue 5, Pg. 978-997

Document Type: Journal Paper


This is the second of two papers that describe a study conducted to develop probability-based load factors and load combinations suitable for use with common construction materials and technologies. In the second phase of the study, described in this paper, the checking equation format for the proposed load criteria was selected, and the load factors and load combinations were computed using a constrained optimization procedure. Comparisons of reliabilities obtained using the proposed procedure with existing criteria are made. Guidance is provided for material specification-writing groups to enable them to select compatible resistance criteria without further numerical computations.

Subject Headings: Load factors | Load combinations | Construction materials | Load and resistance factor design | Probability | Comparative studies | Numerical analysis | Boundary element method

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