Urban Water Conservation: Increasing Efficiency-in-Use Residential Water Demand

by J. Ernest Flack, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo.,

American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, NY
978-0-87262-296-8 (ISBN-13) | 0-87262-296-7 (ISBN-10), 1982, Soft Cover, Pg. 99

Out of Print: Not available at ASCE Bookstore.

Document Type: Book


Water supply and wastewater flow problems have resulted in an increasing concern with urban water demand. This report is an assessment of various water conservation measures aimed at reducing residential water usage. Demand reduction alternatives are examined and those applicable to residential areas are identified. Structural means such as water meters, recycle systems, water saving devices and flow reduction devices are examined. System and household leakage reduction as well as water use restrictions are among the operational methods investigated. Social and economic methods of public education, building code modifications, horticultural changes, and pricing policy are also studied. The literature is reviewed to determine the water savings that each conservation method can accomplish. The amount of water savings and the return flow implications for each method are investigated. Estimates of the combined impact of several methods used together in a common program are postulated. An assessment, based on this available data, found that water demand reductions of as much as 35 to 40% are possible through implementation of a combination of water conservation methods without incurring undue hardship on most water users. It is concluded that demand reduction techniques could successfully be incorporated in a water utility's management program.

Subject Headings: Municipal water | Water conservation | Water flow | Urban areas | Water reclamation | Water meters | Municipal wastewater | Residential location


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