Cooling Tower Practice in Germany: State of the Art

by Wolfgang Zerna, Professor; Ruhr-Universitat Bochum, Institut fur Konstruktiven Ingenieurbau, D-4630, Bochum 1, Germany,
Wilfried B. Kratzig, Prof.; Ruhr-Universitat Bochum, Institut fur Konstrukiven Ingenieurbau, D-4630, Bochum 1, Germany,
Ihsan Mungan, Asst. Prof.; Wissenschaftlicher Angestellter, Ruhr-Universitat Bochum, Institut fur Konstructiven Ingenieurbau, D-4630, Bochum 1, Germany,

Serial Information: Journal of the Energy Division, 1982, Vol. 108, Issue 1, Pg. 59-68

Document Type: Journal Paper


A rapid development in design and construction of natural draught cooling towers has taken place in Germany. Research has been concentrated on theory and analysis of shells, on acting forces, especially on wind effects, on buckling behaviour and constructional problems. An approximate earthquake analysis allows a quick estimation of seismic response. Assuming rigid-body base excitation a discretization of the cooling tower into a beam like model is possible. The earthquake analysis itself is carried out by the response-spectrum-method. All design methods develop construction methods minimizing the imperfections and their control and correction during the erection process. Due to restrictions with respect to the height of the cooling towers there exists a trend towards larger diameters. By arranging stiffening rings the buckling resistance and the lowest natural frequency of this new generation of cooling towers can be improved.

Subject Headings: Construction methods | Cooling towers | Construction management | Buckling | Earthquakes | Load and resistance factor design | Wind forces | Structural behavior | Germany | Europe

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