Water Quality and Effluent Standards of Hawaii

by Gordon L. Dugan, (M.ASCE), Assoc. Prof.; Dept. of Civ. Engrg., Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI,
Reginald H. F. Young, (M.ASCE), Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Civ. Engrg., and Assoc. San. Engr.; Water Resour. Res. Ctr., Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI,
L. Stephen Lau, (M.ASCE), Prof., Dept. of Civ. Engr. and Dir.; Water Resour. Res. Ctr., Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI,

Serial Information: Journal of the Hydraulics Division, 1974, Vol. 100, Issue 9, Pg. 1245-1256

Document Type: Journal Paper


The sequential development of water quality standards for the State of Hawaii, commencing with the passage of the federal Water Quality Act of 1965, resulted in the enactment of receiving water standards in January 1968 that were expressed in terms of basic freedoms and through eight specific standards which applied to separate classes (two fresh waters and three coastal waters) of all surface fresh and near and offshore coastal waters in the state. In order to meet the receiving water requirements at the point of discharge the present or potential discharger can apply for a variance or zone of mixing permit within specific boundaries. The enactment of PL 92-500 together with other reasons prompted the state to develop effluent limitation standards (effective August 1973) that apply to fresh and nearshore coastal waters and subsurface discharges which for practical reasons are limited to discharges of less than 1 mgd (3,785 m³/day) that have received tertiary treatment.

Subject Headings: Water discharge | Fresh water | Water quality | Sea water | Effluents | Standards and codes | Federal government | Surface water | Hawaii | United States

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