Chlorine Disinfection of Low Temperature Waters

by Leroy C. Reid, Jr., (M.ASCE), Sr. San. Engr.; Process Control Branch, Natl. Field Investigations Ctr., Envir. Protection Agency, Denver, CO,
Dale A. Carlson, (M.ASCE), Prof. and Chmn.; Dept. of Civ. Engrg., Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA,

Serial Information: Journal of the Environmental Engineering Division, 1974, Vol. 100, Issue 2, Pg. 339-351

Document Type: Journal Paper


This study evaluated chlorine disinfection of water at controlled temperatures of 0.5°C, 4°C, 8°C, 12°C, 16°C, and 20°C. Bacterial tests were made by the membrane filter technique. The indicator bacteria were a pure culture of E. coli. In the 0°C-8°C temperature range, the quantity of chlorine necessary to achieve a desired level of disinfection is dependent solely on the numbers of E. coli initially present in the water. Alkalinity (as CaCO3) in the 0-100 mg/l range and pH in the 6-8 range have no statistically significant effect on the chlorine disinfection rate in the 0-12°C temperature range. Calcium in the water in concentrations as low as 1 mg/l reduces the rate of chlorine disinfection. The data and findings from the study were used to develop a model for plant operators showing the chlorine dose required to achieve a desired level of disinfection for E. coli concentrations in the ranges, 5 x 107, 5 x 105, and 5 x 10³ or less per 100 ml.

Subject Headings: Water treatment | Bacteria | Health hazards | Chlorine | Temperature effects | Water temperature | Disinfection | Membranes

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