Environmental Design for Istanbul Sewage Disposal

by Charles G. Gunnerson, (F.ASCE), Dir.; Regional Ofc., Int. Joint Commission, Windsor, ON, Canada,

Serial Information: Journal of the Environmental Engineering Division, 1974, Vol. 100, Issue 1, Pg. 101-118

Document Type: Journal Paper


The stable two-layer current system of the Turkish Straits makes it possible for Istanbul and nearby communities to safely discharge, after flotation, sewage into the lower layer. There it will mix with the Mediterranean waters flowing into the anaerobic lower portion of the Black Sea where its suspended solids will be digested. Available data indicate that recreational use and fishing within the upper layer will not be affected. Heavy metals inadvertently discharged to sewers are expected to be largely precipitated as insoluble sulfides and deposited onto the floor of the Black Sea. A series of relatively small submarine outfalls will provide adequate disposal at minimum cost and, when future increasing water demands require reclamation, permit determination at that time of the optimum location of treatment and reclamation works.

Subject Headings: Water reclamation | Environmental issues | Sustainable development | Sewage | Seas and oceans | Safety | Turbidity | Solid mechanics | Istanbul | Turkey | Europe | Black Sea

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