Transformation of Plans into Actions

by Johannes W. Kurz, (A.M.ASCE), Sr. Planning Engr.; Puget Sound Governmental Conference, Seattle, WA,

Serial Information: Journal of the Urban Planning and Development Division, 1973, Vol. 99, Issue 2, Pg. 183-191

Document Type: Journal Paper


In the last 10 yrs, a great number of public works projects have experienced increasingly strong objections from the public at large on their way from planning to implementation. Using a few case studies, the underlying causes for plan failure are examined. In most cases, the primary reason for such a failure can be traced to an incomplete planning process attributable, for instance, to inadequate assessment of environmental effects, lack of citizen participation, lack of official policies, or lack of community commitment. Plan implementation can be defined as the sum total of a variety of political, technical, and economic actions which lead to the realization of a plan, and through it to the achievement of an objective or goal. Unless these actions are spelled out clearly and realistically, it is unlikely that the plan concerned will be implemented. All the elements that are of significance for plan implementation have to be built into the planning process from the very beginning.

Subject Headings: Infrastructure | Case studies | Failure analysis | Environmental issues | Political factors | Economic factors

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