Optimization of Dead End Water Distribution Systems

by P. K. Swamee, Lect. in Civ. Engrg.; Univ. of Roorkee, Roorkee, U.P., India,
Virendra Kumar, Exec. Engr.; Local Self. Govt. Engrg. Dept., Roorkee, U.P., India,
P. Khanna, Reader in Civ. Engrg.; Univ. of Roorkee, Roorkee, U.P., India,

Serial Information: Journal of the Environmental Engineering Division, 1973, Vol. 99, Issue 2, Pg. 123-134

Document Type: Journal Paper


A single dead end system with multiple withdrawals has been synthesized. Dead end water distribution systems are frequently encountered in rural water supply systems. Their optimal design is reduced to a nonlinear objective function with a nonlinear constraint. A closed form solution of the problem has been obtained by the Lagrangian multiplier method. The solution is presented in a form directly usable by the design engineer providing optimal pipe diameters, pumping head, hydraulic gradient line, and the minimal cost. The solution has been generalized for a continuous withdrawal of discharge. The case of two withdrawals is depictable in graphical form and provides a clear insight into the variation of the various parameters. Substantial saving can be achieved by designing the water distribution facilities at minimal costs.

Subject Headings: Water supply systems | Hydraulic design | Rural areas | Closed form solutions | Lagrangian functions | Pipelines | Pumps | Head (fluid mechanics)

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