Low Velocity Penetration of Kaolin Clay

by James D. Murff, (A.M.ASCE), Sr. Res. Engr.; Esso Prod. Res. Co., Houston, TX,
Harry M. Coyle, (M.ASCE), Assoc. Prof. of Civ. Engrg.; Texas A&M Univ., College Station, TX,

Serial Information: Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, 1973, Vol. 99, Issue 5, Pg. 375-389

Document Type: Journal Paper


Penetration of rigid projectiles into compacted kaolin clay targets with carefully controlled properties is investigated. An examination of the experimental techniques for measuring the soil resistance to a penetrating projectile is presented. Procedures for construction of targets and determination of soil properties is described. Projectile diameter is varied from 1.5 to 3 in. (40 to 75 mm) and projectile weight is varied from 3 to 115 lbf (10 to 510 N). Six different nose shapes are tested. Impact velocity is varied from 30 to 300 fps (9.0 to 90 m/s). The effect of projectile and soil properties on the deceleration history of the projectile is demonstrated. Test results indicate that a critical velocity exists above which separation of the soil occurs during penetration. The critical velocity is a function of both soil and projectile properties.

Subject Headings: Kaolin | Penetration tests | Compacted soils | Soil analysis | Load and resistance factor design | Construction management | History

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