Cooling Water Sources for Power Generation

by Louis G. Hauser, Manager; Fuels & Energy Systems, Power Systems Planning, Westinghouse Electric Corp., East Pittsburgh, PA,

Serial Information: Journal of the Power Division, 1971, Vol. 97, Issue 1, Pg. 123-133

Document Type: Journal Paper


In this paper a forecast of thermal discharge growth by type of generation is derived from a forecast of electric generation, an estimate of generation mix, and the expected heat rates for each type of plant. Alternate methods of heat dissipation are explained and economically evaluated in terms of incremental costs additions to a base generation cost for once-through fresh water cooling. Generation cost increases are shown to be less than 5% for each type of cooling except for nonevaporative dry cooling. A survey of plant locations which includes a cost comparison of supplemental cooling at the load center versus power transmission from a once-through cooling water source indicates that approximately 70% of future generating stations will require supplemental cooling systems. Two cases of cooling tower cost optimization performed on a specific plant demonstrate how significant savings on a present worth basis can be obtained when more sophisticated analytical techniques are applied.

Subject Headings: Hydro power | Power plants | Cooling (wastewater treatment) | Temperature effects | Forecasting | Thermal pollution | Economic factors | Fresh water

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